What is the Problem in Kashmir?
Kashmir, a region in the northeastern part of India is in the middle of a heated conflict between India and neighboring Pakistan. While the India-Pakistan conflict is the more prominent conflict in the region, China and the Kashmiri people are also involved in a dispute with India regarding territory.
When Kashmir gained independence from Britain in 1947, Kashmir was left to decide which nation to accede to, India or Pakistan. Despite its wish for independence, the ruling Raja at the time decided to accede to India. Today, around 43% of the region is controlled by India, including majority of Jammu, Ladakh, Kashmir Valley, and Siachen Glacier. 37% is controlled by Pakistan, and 20% is controlled by China. Moreover, there are groups in Kashmir that believe that the region should be an independent state.
Because of differences in political and territorial ideologies, Pakistan and India have fought no less than 3 wars over Kashmir. Election dissatisfaction has also caused insurgent groups to form in Kashmir. There have been regular bouts of violence in and around the region which India has accused Pakistan of instigating, funding the groups responsible for the violence. Recently however, the violence around Kashmir seems to be winding down.
The international community has been closely monitoring the conflict because both countries have nuclear warfare, which carries dire consequences should there be an all out war. In fact, UN groups have been present in the area since 1949.