Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a T- shaped device that contains hormones and used as birth control method. It is inserted in the uterus and it has a plastic string tied on its end that hangs down through the cervix into the vagina. The string is used to check if the IUD is still in place as well as for the removal of the device.
There are two kinds of UID being used. These are:
a. Hormonal IUD– this is a kind of IUD that releases a form of progestin hormone. It also appears to be more effective at preventing pregnancy. This IUD damages or kills the sperm and causes the mucus in the cervix to become thick and sticky making it impossible for the sperm to get through the uterus. It also prevents the lining of the uterus from growing thick making it a poor place for a fertilized egg to stick and grow. Hormonal IUDs can work for 3 or 5 years
b. Copper IUD– this is the most commonly used IUD where a copper wire is wound around the stem of the T-shaped IUD. Copper is toxic to sperm and it makes the uterus and fallopian tubes to produce a fluid containing white blood cells, copper ions, enzymes and prostaglandis that kills sperm. It can stay in place for up to 10 years.
Both IUDs prevent pregnancy by damaging or killing the sperm even before contraception takes place. IUDs can be used a contraceptive as long as a patient is not pregnant or doesn’t have any pelvic infection. The procedure only takes a few minutes and injecting anesthetics are not always needed.
After the procedure, the patient may experience mild cramping and spotting or light bleeding for one to two days. IUD procedure is recommended for those who had unprotected sex for the past few days and plan to continue using IUD as a birth control method.