What are Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes?

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Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes: What are they?
Learning about cells can be quite interesting. These things can amaze you at some point. You will learn a lot of things and who knows? You might discover another great achievement in science. You could be the next Theodore Schawann, Mathiass Schleidan or Rudolf Virchow. But first, you must learn some basics and be an eager reader.

Cells make up all living things, from trees, animals, and then to humans. There are 2 major groups of cells: The Prokaryotes and the Eukaryotes. They may be similar at some point, but they have also differences.

What is a Eukaryote?
Eukaryotes are organisms that contain complex structures that were enclosed inside their membranes. Its name comes from the Greek word ‘eu’, means ‘good’, and ‘karyon’, means ‘kernel’. This membrane-bound structure that distinguishes eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells is the nucleus, or the nuclear envelop. There’s also membrane-bound organelles that is present in eukaryotic cells such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, and Golgi apparatus.

In cell division, Eukaryote cells have two division processes.

  1. Mitosis ‘“ one cell is divide to produce two genetically identical cells
  2. Meiosis ‘“ one diploid cell undergoes recombination of each pair of parental chromosomes. This process is required in sexual reproduction.

Eukaryotes have three domains of life.

  1. Monophyletic
  2. Bacteria, and
  3. Archaea.

What is a Prokaryote?
Prokaryotes are cellular organisms that lacks nucleus. The word Prokaryote comes from the Greek word ‘pro’ (before) and ‘karyon’ (kernel). Prokaryotes mostly are unicellular, but few such as myxobacteria have multi-cellular stages in their life cycle.

Prokaryotes have two domains of life.

  1. Bacteria, and
  2. Archaea

These cellular organisms are capable of living in extreme temperatures, pH, and radiation. Prokaryotes have high metabolic rate, higher growth rate but have shorter generation time due to its large surface area.
How do the Eukaryotes differ from the Prokaryotes?

Eukaryotes are indefinitely larger than prokaryotes mostly because they have internal membrane and structures.  Cell division in eukaryotes differs from that organism called prokaryote, mainly because prokaryotes don’t have a nucleus. Eukaryotes are the types of cells that are present in plants, while Prokaryotes are for animals.

Prokaryotes have smaller Ribosome than of the Eukaryotes in which where the respiration takes place.  The only difference in their domains is that Prokaryotes only have 2 domains while Eukaryotes have three. Another difference between them is that; Prokaryotes contain only a single loop of stable chromosomal DNA in an area called nucleoid, unlike in Eukaryotes; their DNA’s appear on their organized chromosomes.

The major difference of the Prokaryotes form the Eukaryotes it their dependency in each other cells. Prokaryotes depend on other similar cells and some other different cells to form what is needed for life processes. While Eukaryotes in the other hand, is independent and carries out the processes of life by working its organelles.

It was never clear but Scientists thought that only prokaryotes existed on earth a long time ago. They feed on themselves and as the process of evolution takes place, they formed themselves into somewhat different. This eventually, made the existence of Eukaryotes.

Some things in science can be complicated and not all that was documented is considered true. They may be theories that need confirmation. But whatever it is, they will always be a part of our everyday life.

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