Muslim and British empires are the greatest empires ever to rule India back in histo-ry. Each of these two empires had a significant impact on India during its time in power. The following are some of the aspects in which the two empires differed from one another:
Period and duration of rule
Muslims ruled India for over 700 years while British rule only took place in India for about 90 years. Muslim rule in India intermittent while the British ruled India for consecutive years. British rule in India occurred between 1858 and 1947 whereas Muslim rule in India was spread across different centuries.
The first Muslim attack on India occurred in Sindh in 715 AD. It was carried out by Arabs led by Mohammad Bin Qasim. The Arabs managed to oust Raja Dahir from power and took over the Sindh capital, Deval. They ruled Sindh for 300 years. Turk Sabuktagin was the next Muslim ruler to invade India. He established his Kingdom in Khorasan and later expanded it to include areas like Kabul and Ghazni. Sabuktagin’s son Mahmud of Ghazni took over the throne in 997 AD. He invaded various parts of India between 1001 and 1027. These included Thaneshwar, Kangra, Mathura, Gwalior, Kanauj, Kashmir, Punjab, and Somnath. The next important Muslim ruler who invaded India after Mahmud was Mohammad Ghori. He invaded Multan around 1175. He was however defeated by Prithvi Raj Chauhan in 1191 AD. Ghori later defeated Chauhan in 1192.
Europeans from England had established trading posts in India in the early 17th century. In early 18th century, France and Great Britain were struggling for domi-nance in India. Great Britain managed to dominate most parts of India by the mid-dle of the 19th century.
Reason for invading India
The Muslims were attracted to India because of the wealth that India had. In addi-tion to that, they also were pushed on by the urge to spread the Islamic religion. Ri-valry between the local kingdoms made it easier for Muslims to invade India.
The British on the other hand had mainly come to India for the purposes of trade. They needed items like pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, tea, coffee, silk, and cotton which India had to take back to Europe. British trade in India was run by the East India Company. The British found themselves ruling India in the event of trading. Weakening Indian kingdoms as well as the military power that the British had ena-bled them to take over India.
Under Muslim leadership, great architectural works were erected in India. These in-clude buildings and monuments like the Taj Mahal, the Pearl Mosque and the Jama Masjid. Other constructions included the Biwi Ka Maqbara and the Charminar.
The British rulers on their part are famed for having constructed the first railway line in India. The governor general of India at that time, Lord Hardinge, allowed pri-vate investors to construct railways in India in 1844.
The economy of India did well during the Muslim rule whereas it plummeted during the British rule. Trade also flourished during the Muslim rule as opposed to during the British rule. India was undergoing the struggle of opposing the British rule dur-ing the time the British held power and therefore it was difficult to focus on the economy at large.
Muslim regime in India was characterised by religious intolerance as the Muslims were keen on spreading Islam. There was however religious tolerance during the British rule.
Push for independence
Indians pushed for independence more during British rule than during Muslim rule.