1. Eukaryotic cells possess membrane-bound nucleus.
• It came from the Greek word eu “well” karyon “nut”.
• External membranes are lipid-based that protects the cell’s genetic material (DNA).
• This cell’s structural support is also called the nuclear envelope that oftentimes called the “true nucleus”.
• Eukaryotic cells possess a plasma membrane that functions as a transport and signaling medium.
2. Eukaryotic cell discovery was through the Endosymbiotic theory.
• This is a theory stating that a single-cell organism had changed the earth.
• Symbiogenesis explains the origin of eukaryotic cells specifically the organelles chloroplast and mitochondria.
• This theory suggests that evolution was pioneered by endocytosis of bacteria and blue-green algae which easily develops dependent relationship for survival.
• Endocytosis is a process of using energy absorbed from molecules without passing through cell membrane and locks the materials inside it.
• The ingested molecules of the bacteria is from the harvested particles in the atmosphere and energy of the sun giving way to photosynthesis and give out oxygen to change the earth’s atmosphere, thus life begins.
• It was a milestone in the research and study of the evolution of life.
3. Eukaryotic cells are found in the kingdom Animalia.
• Eukaryote is the term use to define any organism which is composed of eukaryotic cells.
• Animal cell, including humans are made up of eukaryotic cells.
• Protozoa, fungi and plant also have eukaryotic cells.
4. Eukaryotic cells sustain its life through aerobic respiration.
• Aerobic respiration is a type of cellular respiration through metabolic reaction to gain energy from nutrients.
• They acquire biochemical fuel from oxygen-generated energy.
5. Eukaryotic cells are carriers of the genetic code.
• This is the cell’s defining feature.
• This is also the site where the DNA interpretation processes begin and give the eukaryotic cells control over its intermediate and protein production.
• Eukaryotic cells’ DNA (are always in combination with proteins) are made up of distinct lengths.
6. Eukaryotic cells are about 10 – 100 micrometers in size.
• Extracellular matrix, intracellular blueprint and detailed characteristic of eukaryotic cells can be visualized (cross-section or slice of a cell) by electronic microscope.
• Video microscopic techniques can be used to view the dynamic changes of the whole organelle in motion.
7. Eukaryotic cells have specialized compartments.
• These are called organelles.
• Cellular components with specific and dedicated functions critical for the cells survival such as energy transfer within the cells in the body through biochemical reactions whereas the rest of the organelles benefit from the energy generated to fuel its activities.
• Mitochondira, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies and lysosomes.
• They work together to achieve and meet the overall needs of cells.
• These are essential for the basic organization of a cell and it contributes in increasing their efficiency.
8. Eukaryotic cells have internal cytoskeleton.
• It comes in three structural components, the microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules which have multitude of function.
• The eukaryotic cell shape and movements greatly depends on the intracellular matrix.
• This dynamic structure is made up of countless building block proteins that assemble cells and is capable of changing by network association of proteins inside the body.
9. Eukaryotic cells play a role in muscle contraction.
• This is made possible by the action of myosin (a super family of motor proteins) found in eukaryotic cells.
• Myosin is an enzyme which converts chemical energy into mechanical energy that interacts along the tracks of actin filaments and produces a contractive movement evolving in the cells and results to muscle contraction.
10. Eukaryotic cells have special senses.
• Flagella (one of the organelles of eukaryotic cells) also known as undulipodium, is a type of extracellular slender whip-like projection aids locomotion, feeding and sensation.