Interesting Facts about Cloning

, , Leave a comment

In media, cloning is referred to only as reproductive or genetic cloning. But there is more than one type of cloning and the cloning technologies can be used in other purpose as well other than creating genetic twins of various organisms.

There are mainly three types of cloning that are discussed as follows- DNA Cloning, Therapeutic Cloning and Reproductive Cloning. There are many interesting things to know about cloning which are discussed here.

  • The first cloning created was Dolly, the sheep by a Scottish scientist at Roslyn Institute. This made the world think of the possibilities of human cloning, as well. As this was a scientific achievement, the magazines of 1997 flooded with this news and technology.

 

  • DNA cloning is also known as molecular cloning or even recombinant DNA technology. It is mainly the shifting of DNA particles from one organism to another who is self-replicating. Example of such an organism is bacterial plasmid. This technology is known since the 1970s and is quite common in recent days’ biology laboratories.

 

  • Some scientists who are going through a specific gene seldom use plasmids to make more replicas of a particular gene. Plasmids are different from basic bacterial genome as they can self-replicate with extra-chromosomal round DNA molecules. Plasmids are cloning units that are used as research vectors by Human Genome Project.

 

  • In order to clone a gene, the DNA particles of a particular gene is isolated with the help of restriction enzymes and then is mixed with a plasmid which is altered with a particular restriction enzyme.

 

  • When a part from the chromosomal DNA is added with the respective cloning vector in the lab, it is known as recombinant DNA molecule. Then the information is carried down to respective host cells. The recombinant DNA has the potential to reproduce with the help of host cell DNA.

 

  • Plasmids have the capacity to bear up to 20,000bp foreign DNA. Apart from bacterial plasmids, there are further cloning vectors that include viruses of different types, YAC or Yeast Artificial Chromosomes and BAC or Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Cosmids are artificially made cloning units that have the potential to carry up to 45 kb foreign DNA.

 

  • With the help of reproductive cloning, an animal with the similar nuclear DNA can be created from an already existing animal. Dolly was a sheep who was created using this technology. Any animal created by nuclear transfer technology is not a proper clone of the donor.

 

  • There is a process known as ‘œSomatic Cell Nuclear Transfer’, (SCNT) where the scientists transfer genes from the nucleus of the donor animal cell to the egg of the nucleus. The newly formed egg with DNA from the donor cell must be dealt with chemicals or current electricity to stimulate the cell division.

 

  • Embryo cloning or Therapeutic cloning is also another type of cloning which produces human embryos in research. The main motive of this process is to make stem cells that can be used for human study development rather than human cloning. This is mainly used to treat any disease.

 

  • Stem cells are of importance to bio-medical research as they can help in generating any kind of special cell of human body. Stem cells are derived from egg after its division for 5 days. The developed egg at this stage is known as a blastocyst.

The scientists of Advanced Cell Technologies (ACT), Massachusetts, declared that the first human embryo has created by them in November 2001. For this, they gathered a woman’s egg from ovaries and separated the genetic unit with a needle which is 2/10,000th of an inch wide.

Tea Time Quiz

[forminator_poll id="23176"]
 

Leave a Reply