Facts about Anderson Shelters

, , Leave a comment


1. Origin of Anderson Shelters
Sir John Anderson was put in charge of Air Raid Precautions (ARP) by Chamberlain in November 1938. He directly appointed an engineer called William Patterson to build a small, cheap shelter that could be pitched on people’s gardens. Before World War II started, close to one and a half million shelters had been distributed to people living in regions that bombing was projected the Luftwaffe. These shelters were known as Anderson shelters.

2. Construction of an Anderson Shelter
An Anderson shelter was built from six bent sheets fastened together at the uppermost part with hardened plates on both ends measuring 1.95m by 1.35m. The shelter could only provide accommodation for six people. Furthermore, the shelters were semi- buried with soil piled on top while their entrance was secured by a hardened steel barrier.

3. Distribution of Anderson Shelters
The Anderson Shelters were distributed for free to poor people. However, men who made more than 5 pounds a week could purchase a shelter for 7 pounds. September 1939 marked the start of the outbreak of World War II which saw a large number of families owning over 2 million shelters in their gardens. By the time of the onslaught, the number had projected to two and a quarter million.

4. Sources of Cover
As the war continued to escalate, the Luftwaffe changed from day time to nightfall bombing. Therefore, the government directed people to take cover in their Anderson shelters. During the night, sirens symbolized that the Germans were approaching and therefore the government ensured that most people had a chance to take cover before the retaliations started.

5. Challenges of Anderson Shelters
During the night, the Anderson shelters became damp and dark, as such, people were hesitant to use them. The shelters that were situated in low lying regions had a tendency of flooding and sleeping became difficult as the shelters did not put out the sound of the bombings. Additionally, people living in industrial regions lacked gardens where they could put up their shelters.

6. Effectiveness of Anderson shelters
The planned bombing against the United Kingdom by the Germans between the year 1939 and 1945, murdered about 50,000 people while the attacks by the United Kingdom against the Germans executed ten times as many. The United Kingdom executed about 500,000 Germans which clearly reveals how the Anderson shelter was effective.

7. Cold inside the Anderson shelter
Since the war took place at night, people tried to move back to their houses since they were warmer. Therefore, the government crafted strategies to make the Anderson shelters warmer and comfy. One of the strategies that the government undertook was the introduction of Morrison shelters.

8. The Morrison Shelters’ Alternative
The Morrison shelters were built and named after the Home Secretary Herbert Morrison. They were made of heavy steel and they could be put up in living rooms and used as tables. A wire was connected on one side which was used to assist people to sneak under and get in. The shelters were large and could accommodate two or three people.

9. Popularity of the Anderson shelters
A study that was undertaken in November 1940 revealed that 27% of people in London used Anderson shelters, 9% used public shelters while 4% slept in underground railway stations. The study further showed that 60% of the people were either working at night or spending the night in their homes. These statistics showed that the Anderson shelters lost popularity with time.

10. Modern use Anderson Shelters
Because the Anderson shelters were built using corrugation, they were very strong against strong forces and as such they are still in existence today and used to date as gardens.

Tea Time Quiz

[forminator_poll id="23176"]

Leave a Reply