What is Physiology and Anatomy?
Physiology and anatomy are the branches of biology. Physiology deals with the study of organs and organ systems. The organ systems in the human body are respiratory system, circulatory system, nervous system, cardiovascular system, skeletal system. Emphasis is laid on the functions carried out by the different systems. Anatomy studies the structure of a living body.
Physiology studies physical, mechanical, biochemical and chemical functions of a body which is perfectly in healthy condition. Experiments on animals were the basis for the study of physiology. Physiology and anatomy are interdependent on each other. Aristotle was the first person to think about the structure and functions of organs. Hippocrates who is also known as the father of medicine contributed significantly to the development of physiology. Physiology studies the overall functioning of the body. Comparative physiology and eco- physiology emerged in the 20th century. Cell theory led to the rapid accumulation of knowledge in physiology.
Gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy are the branches of anatomy. Gross anatomy is also known as macroscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy focuses its study on structures which can be seen with the normal human eye where as microscopic anatomy studies the structures which are invisible to the human eye. Histology and cytology come under microscopic anatomy. At first animals were studied by means of dissection. The 20th century witnessed several technological methods which made the study easier. X ray, ultra sounding and MRI were some among them. Modern human anatomy was founded by Vesalius.
Human anatomy studies the human body which has attained complete maturity. Anatomy is also subdivided into branches such as comparative anatomy, anthropological anatomy and artistic anatomy. Anatomy studies organs which consist of cells which in turn consist of connective tissue. The overall integration of the human body is achieved by means of electrical and chemical communication within it.