Igneous rock is one of the three major types of rocks formed through the solidification of molten rock or magma. The other types of rocks are the sedimentary rock and metamorphic rock. Unlike the two, igneous rock may be form even without crystallization.
The history of igneous rock can be traced back to the Roman period, wherein it was discovered that the god of fire is named â€œVulcan.â€ Igneous, on the other hand, was taken from the Latin word â€œignisâ€ meaning â€œof fire.â€ Igneous rocks are typically hot. Intrusive igneous rocks form below the surface of the earth. Its common examples include gabbro, granite, and diorite. The other type is extrusive igneous rocks which form above the earth surface. Its common examples include andesite, pumice, basalt, and scoria.
Igneous rocks compose almost 90% of the earth’s surface together with the metamorphic rocks. They are very important because they contribute in the cycle of minerals in the soil. They also influence the composition of the mantle, stabilize temperature, and change pressure condition. Another geological advantage of igneous rock is tectonic reconstitution. Igneous rocks hold some essential minerals such as uranium, tin, and tungsten. They are specifically found in granite and diorite rocks. Igneous rocks also contain some other minerals like Olivine, Biotite Amphibole, Plagioclase feldspar, and Quartz. These minerals also affect the color and shape of igneous rocks. Igneous rocks with Felsic and Mafic are very dark. Igneous rocks that only contain the Felsic are lighter.
Igneous rocks can easily be identified according to their size and characteristics. Although they do not undergo crystallization, they are arranged with interlocking crystals. Their size can vary depending on how the molten magma is solidified. The slower the magma cools, the bigger the crystals can become. The rate of cooling also determines the texture of the igneous rock.