What is CNS?
CNS or Central Nervous System functions as the body’s central processing center in terms of controlling the activities of the entire body, including the detection of various sensations and movement. Its main components are the brain and spinal cord which have vital functions in processing sensory and motor information in the body.
In most animals, including humans, the brain is the focal point of the body’s central nervous system. It is through the brain that various processes in the body are activated and/or stopped. One important brain function is the control of various organ systems in the entire body for proper functioning. Basic movement invokes the functions of the bones and muscles and it is through the brain that the muscular and skeletal systems are activated to perform a particular activity. The brain is also responsible in causing various secretions by the several glands in the body. These secretions could be in the form of hormones or neurotransmitters which perform specific cellular functions.
On the other hand, the second component of the CNS is the spinal cord, which extends from the brain and goes down to the lower back area of the spine. The spinal cord is composed of nervous tissue and functions mainly to transmit signals from the brain to the various parts of the body. Sensory and motor information coming to/from the brain also travel through the nerve pathways within the spinal cord. The spinal cord also plays a key role in the coordination of various reflexes in the body.
Since the Central Nervous System serves as the main processing center of the body, any disruption to its normal function by disease or injury could be debilitating and fatal. Various illnesses affecting the brain and spinal cord usually cause a severe form of illness. Motor and sensory functions may be involved resulting to problems in movement, locomotion, sensation, and reflexes.