Nicaragua is the largest country in the isthmus of Central America, with a total area of 130,375 square kilometers. 7.14% of this area is covered by water. To the north, it is bordered by Honduras and Costa Rica to the South. Caribbean borders it to the east and Pacific Ocean to the west. It has a population of over 6 million people (according to the 2012 population census), and a population density of 51 persons per square kilometers. A portion of this population lives in its capital city, Managua. Almost half of the total population of this country occupies the Pacific lowlands. Nicaragua is a home of a diversity of people:- those from Europe, Africa, Asia and people from the Middle East. Most of the inhabitants of this country speak Spanish, even though there are a sections that speak other languages such as English, Miskito, Rama, Sumo, Miskito Coastal Creole, Garifuna and Rama Cay Creole. According to the most recent 2011 survey, 69% of the Nicaragua’s population was made up of the Mestizo, 17% by the white, 9% by the black and 5% composed by the indigenous people.
The name â€œNicaraguaâ€ was initiated by the Spanish colonists and was derived from â€œNicaraoâ€, which was the name of the then chief of the most popular indigenous tribe. It was conquered by the Spanish empire in the 16th century (1529-1821) and later by Mexico and the Federal Republic of Central America. Due to the improper rule by the colonies, the people of Nicaragua saw it necessary to gain independence. They first got out of the rule of first Mexican Empire on the 15th of September 1821 and recognized on 25th July 1850. On 31st May 1838, they walked out of the authority of the Federal Republic of Central America. Since its time of independence, the country has undergone a series of political unrests, the rule of the iron fist (the longest being the hereditary dictatorship of the Somoza family who was in power for 43 years), and fiscal crisis. This led to the revolution on the 19th July 1979.
Nicaragua has experienced a great political stability for the past 1 decade. It has always been a multi-party democratic republic since independence. The president is the supreme leader and who serves as the head of state and government. The current president of the republic of Nicaragua is Hon. Daniel Ortega, who was elected into office in 2007.
Climate and geography.
Nicaragua is made up of three regions:
- The pacific lowlands. This is the most fertile valleys where the Spanish colonists settled. The area is always suitable for agricultural purposes. So many crops are grown here for both commercial and subsistence use.
- The north central highlands which are otherwise referred to as the Amerrisque Mountains.
- The Caribbean lowlands, also known as The Mosquito Coast or the Atlantic Lowlands.
The Atlantic coast have low plains that have a stretch of up to 97 kilometers in wide areas, with a flamboyant growth of grass and trees, making it suitable for dairy farming. The plains also have natural resources such as rivers and swamps that are economically exploited.
The country harbors lakes Managua and Nicaragua, the two largest fresh water lakes in Central America. The lakes are surrounded by fertile low plains that resulted from the volcanic ash of the Central Highland volcanoes.
Nicaragua can be describes as a hotspot of biodiversity due to its unique composition of various varieties of plants and animals. Close to half of this country is reserved for national parks and nature reserves.
Temperatures remain almost constant throughout the year and ranges between 29.400C and 32.20C. The dry seasons start from November and ends in April. The rains begin in May and stop in October, yielding a precipitation of between 1016 to 1524 millimeters.