1. CPR is an emergency procedure.
• Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is indicated when signs of cardiac arrest (heart stops working) are present.
• Unconsciousness, no pulse (assessed and palpated in large arteries such as in the carotid or femoral) artery and no breathing are signs to initiate CPR.
2. CPR objective is to delay tissue death.
• Manual chest compression to keep the heart pumping
• Aim to deliver oxygen through provision of partial blood flow to vital organs especially to the heart and brain.
• An estimated 4 minutes of delayed cerebral perfusion can result to irreversible brain damage.
3. CPR can double the chance of a victim’s survival.
• Cardiac arrest is the leading cause of mortality in adults.
• CPR is a lifesaving procedure and is considered as one of the major factor in survivability.
• There is about 90 % incidence of death due to cardiac arrest before reaching medical facilities.
4. CPR originated back in the 1700’s.
• It was the Paris Academy of Sciences who endorsed the provision of artificially aided respiration.
• Back then, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation is officially recommended for drowning victims.
5. CPR techniques vary.
• CPR comes in standards with the ratio of chest compression to artificial ventilation but the techniques in infant, child and adult differ.
6. CPR is not an easy work.
• Standard rate is one hundred chest compressions per minute at a depth of 5 centimeters pumped over the victim’s chest.
• If a bystander or any available person around, you can ask for help to switch position when gets exhausted.
7. Anyone can perform CPR.
• CPR is a first aid skill that is practiced throughout the world which is highly learnable by anyone.
• Increasing public awareness and the importance of CPR will save many lives.
• Compression only is a technique for bystanders and untrained responders or when rescuers are reluctant to do mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
8. Rib fracture is the most common CPR-related injury.
• Incidence of fracture complications increases with age.
• A decrease in bone density is associated with the aging process.
• A victim may end up having one broken rib after CPR by layperson other than a doctor.
• Nevertheless, good deed is better than doing nothing at all.
• Moreover, women have a greater risk than men to have broken ribs after CPR because they are more prone to have osteoporosis (bone-thinning disease).
• In most cases, CPR-related fracture doesn’t cause mortality as there is unlikely internal organ involvement.
• The Good Samaritan Law protects the rescuer if injury does occur.
9. CPR in pregnant women is doable.
• CPR is intended for everyone who needs it, which is all the more crucial to pregnant patients, resuscitating two lives in one body.
• While lying on her back, the gravid uterus tends to push and compress the inferior vena cava (and empties blood into the right atrium), thus causing impairment of venous return and ineffectiveness of chest compressions.
• CPR in pregnant patients are more difficult due several physiologic changes like rib flaring, raised diaphragm and slight increased in breast size.
• Before initiating CPR, the pregnant woman should be positioned properly (fifteen to thirty degrees back from the left lateral position) aimed to pull the uterus to the side.
• Chest compressions are given in standard ratio modifying the position of the heel of the hand slightly above the sternum due to the diaphragm being pushed upwards by the abdominal content (i.e. late trimester in pregnancy).
10. CPR alone cannot restart the heart.
• Someone trained in CPR always ask for help, to call 911 or other emergency help available then starts chest compressions.
• The manual pumping of the heart should be done continuously until emergency services arrive to bring the victim to the nearest medical facility for further intervention and management.